dissabte, 12 de gener de 2019

AJEV EDITA LA GUÍA DE LA ECONOMÍA DEL BIEN COMÚN PARA PYMES Y AUTÓNOMOS

AJEV EDITA LA GUÍA DE LA ECONOMÍA DEL BIEN COMÚN PARA PYMES Y AUTÓNOMOS



 Publicado 13 noviembre, 2018 


El objetivo es dar a conocer a pymes y autónomos en qué consiste la Economía del Bien Común y los beneficios que aporta.


Esta guía esta subvencionada por la Generalitat Valenciana a través de la Resolución de 22 de Marzo de 2018, del Conseller de Economía Sostenible, Sectores Productivos, Comercio y Trabajo, por la que se convocan las ayudas destinadas a la promoción de la economía sostenible en la Comunitat Valenciana para el ejercicio 2018.
Hemos editado cuatro miniguías, teméticas para que puedas tener acceso a la siguiente información:

















http://ajevalencia.org/ajev-edita-la-guia-de-la-economia-del-bien-comun-para-pymes-y-autonomos/?fbclid=IwAR3T0ljkeqhaimG9-b4TBilV3QDNvz9a-X3JQhm8pWJxelmsq8ZVWKjf1ak

dissabte, 29 de desembre de 2018

Un manual recull per primera vegada casos reals d'aplicació de l'Economia del Bé Comú en empreses i municipis

Un manual recull per primera vegada casos reals d'aplicació de l'Economia del Bé Comú en empreses i municipis

La Universitat de València publica el primer text universitari per a apropar la doctrina econòmica a professors universitaris i alumnes

La Universitat de València és capdavantera en l'estudi i el foment de l'Economia del Bé Comú. Es tracta d'un corrent econòmic alternatiu, que va més enllà dels models tradicionals i que recull la major part de les diferents iniciatives crítiques sorgides durant les darreres dècades. Aquesta doctrina defensa que l'economia és una eina al servei de la ciutadania i entén els diners com un mitjà i no com una finalitat. És el contrari al capitalisme perquè el bé comú és l'objectiu superposat a totes les activitats econòmiques, segons explica el seu impulsor, l'austríac Christian Felber. 

Dins de la Facultat d'Economia s'ha creat la Càtedra de l'Economia del Bé Comú, la primera càtedra mundial sobre aquest model econòmic, impulsada per Joan Ramón Sanchis i que compta amb el vistiplau de Felber. En una entrevista a Diari La Veu, el creador del model econòmic va lloar que la creació de la càtedra siga iniciativa del catedràtic i no del moviment de l'Economia del Bé Comú ni de la Generalitat. Tot i això, el moviment econòmic té un ferm aliat en la Conselleria d'Economia, ja que Rafa Climent és un defensor d'aquest model i va tractar d'aplicar-lo a Muro d'Alcoi (el Comtat) quan va ser alcalde. 

El passat més d'octubre, la càtedra i Sanchis van donar un pas més enllà i van presentar el primer manual universitari sobre l'Economia del Bé Comú. Amb El Modelo de la Economia del Bien Común. Aplicación a la empresa/organización y casos prácticos, la càtedra ha volgut "aplicar el llibre de Felber sobre l'Economia del Bé Comú donant-li un enfocament acadèmic i, sobretot, aportant casos d'empreses que estan implantant el balanç del bé comú". El llibre s'ha dut endavant gràcies a la col·laboració de l'Associació Federal espanyola i valenciana de l'Economia del Bé Comú.

El manual, amb pròleg de Christian Felber, explica el marc teòric de l'Economia del Bé Comú, els seus orígens i conceptes bàsics com el Balanç del Bé Comú i la Matriu del Bé Comú. Però no es queda ahí. Lluny de ser un text merament teòric, el manual dedica tota la part final a explicar com es pot aplicar aquest model econòmic en empreses, municipis i centres educatius i mostra casos pràctics d'empreses que ja l'apliquen. És el cas, per exemple, de l'empresa Cartonajes La Plana SL, CuiNatur i Action Waterscapes SL.
El text analitza a fons sis empreses; sis entitats no lucratives, i el cas de 5 administracions i organitzacions públiques de Barcelona, Salamanca i Àustria. De tots ells s'explica la seua història, el model d'empresa i com aplica l'Economia del Bé Comú, el Balanç i la Matriu.

Segons explica Sanchis, l'objectiu de la publicació és disposar de materials docents a l'abast del professorat que estiga interessat a explicar el model d'Economia del Bé Comú als seus estudiants i també a donar a conéixer el model a la societat "i demostrar que no es tracta d'un model purament teòric o filosòfic sinó que inclou eines de treball que ja estan aplicant un nombre important d'empreses tant privades com també entitats no lucratives i administracions públiques, com ara universitats i municipis".
Des de la càtedra consideren "fonamental" introduir el model de l'Economia del Bé Comú "perquè l'estudiantat sàpiga que no existeix un únic model de pensament econòmic", assenyala Sanchis, que insisteix que "el model econòmic neoliberal no pot explicar la situació actual, on tot i que es produeix un creixement econòmic, les desigualtats, l'exclusió i la pobresa continuen augmentant". És per això que el manual vol ser una eina perquè l'estudiantat puga "conéixer altres models econòmics alternatius basats en la sostenibilitat, segons la qual la creació de valor econòmic i financer no és incompatible amb la creació de valor social i ambiental; més bé al contrari, tots aquestos valors es reforcen mútuament. El model de l'Economia del Bé Comú explica açò", explica Sanchis.

L'Economia del Bé Comú en els centres educatius
El catedràtic reconeix que és molt difícil aconseguir que en les titulacions universitàries s'incloga una assignatura sobre el model de l'Economia del Bé Comú perquè això implicaria reformar els plans d'estudis. No obstant això, sí que celebra que s'està aconseguint que cada vegada més professors coneguen el model i consideren necessari explicar-lo als estudiants, "encara que siga dins del contingut d'altres assignatures". 
En aquestos moments, a la Universitat de València s'explica el model d'Economia del Bé Comú en assignatures dels graus d'ADE, Economia i Treball Social i en alguns postgraus, com ara al màster d'estratègia i al màster de finances corporatives. També als ensenyaments secundaris, batxillerat i cicles formatius hi ha professorat interessat amb el model que ja està introduint-los en els seus continguts.
Per a impulsar l'estudi de l'Economia del Bé Comú en diferents centres educatius de tots els nivells, la càtedra ha creat una Xarxa d'Innovació Educativa en Economia del Bé Comú formada per professorat de tots els nivells educatius, a través de la qual s'està estenent cada vegada més l'aplicació del model a la docència. "L'educació és el futur de les societats i, per això, creiem que si realment volem canviar la manera de pensar i fer l'economia, s'ha de començar per educar en valors", sentencia Joan Ramón Sanchis.
El cas de Miranda de Azán
Un dels casos més curiosos que s'expliquen és el de l'Ajuntament de Miranda de Azán (Salamanca), primer municipi del món a ser catalogat com a Municipi del Bé Comú. Des de 2011 apliquen aquesta filosofia econòmica en la gestió municipal i van ser uns dels convidats a les jornades sobre municipis del Bé Comú celebrada a València el passat més de març.

En les eleccions municipals de 2011 Izquierda Unida va obtindre la majoria absoluta en el poble. Amb un programa senzill i bastat en la transparència i la regeneració política van seduir els habitants i van començar a canviar les coses. Segons s'explica al manual, els regidors del municipi van conéixer el moviment de l'Economia del Bé Comú quan ja estaven al govern i tot i que en eixe moment només s'aplicava en empreses, van decidir adaptar-lo a la gestió municipal perquè els principals valors que defensa –transparència i participació ciutadana; dignitat humana; solidaritat; sostenibilitat ecològica i justícia social–, són els mateixos que ells volien per al seu municipi. 
Seguir la filosofia de l'Economia del Bé Comú implica el foment de la participació ciutadana en les decisions municipals i en el funcionament del poble i aquest és un dels principals reptes als quals s'enfronta Miranda de Azán. Molt a prop de Salamanca, però inserit en el que es coneix com 'l'Espanya buida', el poble, d'uns 500 habitants –repartits en el nucli urbà i dues urbanitzacions– ha de lluitar per a mantindre –i si pot ser, augmentar– la seua població però sense convertir-se en una ciutat dormitori. 
Així, el seu objectiu actual és tractar d'implicar els nouvinguts en el moviment econòmic sense descuidar la resta d'elements que van aconseguir que en 2013 Miranda de Azán fóra qualificat de el primer Municipi del Bé Comú de tot el món. Ara és exemple per a molts altres que volen seguir els seus passos, com és el cas per exemple dels municipis de Muro d'Alcoi (el Comtat), Xirivella (Horta Sud), Betxí (Plana Baixa), Villena (Alt Vinalopó), Silla (Horta Sud) i Ròtova (la Safor).

https://www.diarilaveu.com/noticia/86589/universitat-valencia-primer-manual-universitari-economia-be-comu?id_butlleti_enviar=2239&utm_source=butlleti_article&utm_medium=butlleti&utm_campaign=Array#.XCCh3Sayc1Q.linkedin

dilluns, 2 de juliol de 2018

SEDA,(Sustainable Economic Development Assessment). BCG


RELATED EXPERTISEPublic Sector, Growth, Globalization

The Private-Sector Opportunity to Improve Well-Being

July 21, 2016 By Douglas Beal , Enrique Rueda-Sabater , Su En Yong , and Shu Ling Heng



Leaders around the world increasingly recognize that GDP alone cannot give a full picture of a country's performance. The well-being of citizens is an even more important measure. The Boston Consulting Group’s Sustainable Economic Development Assessment (SEDA) is a powerful diagnostic designed to provide government leaders with a perspective on how effectively their countries convert wealth, as measured by income levels, into well-being.1 But while the public sector is increasingly focused on well-being and how to enhance living standards, it has not been clear what role there is—if any—for the private sector.
Our research shows that the private sector can make crucial contributions to well-being. When scalable, sustainable solutions to social challenges emerge, we often see the private sector playing a central role. Such efforts go beyond corporations' support for social or environmental causes that are unrelated to their primary business—often part of corporate social responsibility initiatives. Rather, companies can innovate within their core business models in a way that not only enhances shareholder value but also helps address important societal challenges.
To understand the opportunity for the private sector to make a meaningful social impact, we took a close look at the financial services sector and the issue of financial inclusion: access among underserved groups to services such as simple payment and money transfer services, deposit accounts, credit, and insurance. Among our most compelling findings: there is a clear and measurable link between financial inclusion and well-being. And this connection holds even when we control for income, which means that it is not due simply to wealthier countries' higher levels of both well-being and access to financial services.
In addition to the insights on financial inclusion, our 2016 assessment highlighted some interesting stories:
  • Countries in sub-Saharan Africa such as Ethiopia are making tremendous strides in improving well-being; 15 countries in sub-Saharan Africa are in the top quintile in that measure.
  • Developed countries with relatively high current levels of well-being posted weak improvements in general. Greece had the lowest score for recent progress in well-being among the countries we assessed.
  • To better understand the dynamics in Europe, we divided Western European countries into three tiers by their scores in current level of well-being. The low-level countries, concentrated in southwest Europe, are performing particularly poorly in employment and are falling further behind the rest of the world in that area.
  • In a period of turmoil within the European Union, SEDA reveals that EU membership may have a significant positive effect in certain areas. Several Central and Eastern European countries are among those with the highest recent progress in sustainability (which includes income equality, civil society, governance, and environment). Those countries have recently joined or are in the process of joining the EU, and their gains are probably influenced by EU policies and standards.
  • China continues to produce well-being improvements in line with its rapid economic growth. India has a high recent-progress score, although its ability to convert its strong GDP growth into well-being improvements is slightly below average.
Notes:
1.
Our data set includes 162 countries plus Hong Kong, which is a special administrative region of China. For the sake of simplicity, we refer to all entities as “countries.”

Defining Well-Being



SEDA defines well-being through three fundamental elements that comprise ten dimensions. (See Exhibit 1.)
  • Economics, which includes income, economic stability, and employment
  • Investments, which includes education, health, and infrastructure
  • Sustainability, which covers two areas: the environment dimension and social inclusion, which comprises the income equality, civil society, and governance dimensions
empty


For each country, we calculate four measures that provide insight into relative levels of well-being:
  • The current level offers a snapshot of well-being today on a scale of 0 (lowest) to 100 (highest).
  • Recent progress examines how well-being has evolved from 2006 to 2014. This metric is also measured in relative terms, on a scale of 0 to 100.
  • Wealth to well-being compares a country’s current level of well-being with the level that would be expected given the nation’s per capita income. The expected level is represented by a coefficient of 1.0, which is based on global averages.
  • Growth to well-being compares how effectively a country has converted its economic growth into well-being improvements with the level that would be expected. This is also represented by a coefficient of 1.0, based on global averages.

Insights from SEDA 2016



The top ten countries in current-level SEDA scores are in Western Europe. Norway is number one, as it has been since we launched SEDA, in 2012.
When it comes to countries that made the greatest strides in well-being, Asia and Africa dominate. Ethiopia has the highest recent-progress score—gains there have been particularly strong in income and health. (See Strategies for Improving Well-Being in Sub-Saharan Africa, BCG Focus, May 2013.) Ethiopia's performance is emblematic of the gains in sub-Saharan Africa as a whole: 15 countries in the region are in the top quintile of recent-progress scores.
A number of Western countries, meanwhile, posted weak progress. Greece has the lowest recent-progress score among the countries we studied. Not surprisingly, the country's recent-progress performance in economics is also the weakest in our data set.
To better understand the dynamics in Europe, we divided Western European countries into three tiers by current-level scores. The most striking differences between the high and the low groups are in the education and employment dimensions. The countries in the top group (Austria, Denmark, Finland, Germany, the Netherlands, and Norway) are well above the average of those in the bottom group (Cyprus, France, Greece, Italy, Malta, Portugal, and Spain) in both employment and education and made greater progress than the low-tier countries in both dimensions.2 As a result, the gap between the top and bottom tier is growing. The low-tier countries are also below the median in employment and are falling further behind the rest of the world.
Myanmar is one of the new countries in our data set this year. The country has seen a period of major political and economic reforms, culminating in the transition this year to the first elected government in more than five decades. Amid such changes, the country is experiencing a surge in interest from foreign investors. Myanmar's evolution is reflected in its SEDA scores. While the country's current-level score is in the second lowest quintile, its recent-progress score is in the top quintile. Progress has been particularly strong in health and income.
Converting Wealth and Growth into Well-Being. SEDA allows us to control for wealth and growth when assessing well-being. Consequently, we can identify countries that are converting wealth or growth into well-being at above average rates.
When it comes to converting wealth into well-being, several countries stand out. Among them are Vietnam, Rwanda, Albania, and Ethiopia. (See Lotus Nation: Sustaining Vietnam's Impressive Gains in Well-Being, BCG report, March 2016.) (See Exhibit 2.)
Notes:
2.
The midlevel tier included Belgium, Iceland, Ireland, Luxembourg, Sweden, Switzerland, and the UK.


Meanwhile, three Balkan nations are leaders when it comes to converting growth into well-being: Croatia (which holds the number one position), Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Serbia. (See Exhibit 3.) Poland, which had the highest growth-to-well-being coefficient in 2015, continued its strong performance and is in the fifth spot this year.


China continues to produce well-being improvements in line with its robust economic growth from 2006 to 2014. The country's gains have been well above the rest of the world's in investments—health, education, and infrastructure. But China continues to lag behind the median in sustainability—particularly in the environment dimension.
India also has an above average wealth-to-well-being coefficient. India's overall progress, however, is slightly below what would be expected given its growth rate from 2006 to 2014.
Patterns Across Groups of Countries. Our 2016 analysis shows that most of the patterns we identified in 2015 persist—with some interesting variations.
  • Both this year and last, we found that countries with high current-level scores in sustainability made the greatest progress in that area. Countries with low current-level sustainability scores posted recent progress below the median and so were falling further behind. This year, the pattern continues, with particularly strong gains by Eastern and Central European countries. The strong performance among some of those countries reflects changes that were in part a result of recently joining or being in the process of joining the EU.
  • This year, most oil-rich countries (those that earn rents from oil that represent more than 10% of GDP) were again below average at converting both wealth and growth into well-being. In our 2015 and 2016 analyses, the current-level score for this group lagged behind the score for the rest of the world significantly in the area of governance.
  • This year and last, we found that countries with faster economic growth tended to have much lower recent-progress scores in the environment. China, for example, posted strong economic growth from 2006 to 2014 but has a weak current-level score in the environment and is continuing to fall behind in that dimension.
  • Our research also continues to highlight the impressive advances in sub-Saharan Africa. Last year, countries in the region posted gains in line with the median in education and infrastructure and were well above the median in health. This year, the group continues to outpace the median significantly in health and is slightly above the median in education.
  • This year, we took a closer look at another topic: infrastructure. We divided countries in our data set into three groups according to current-level infrastructure scores: high, midlevel, and low. We found that countries with high current-level infrastructure scores did not post high recent-progress scores in that dimension—not surprising, given that they generally did not have as much room for improvement. Countries in the middle group made the most progress in infrastructure, much greater than that of the low current-level group. The weak progress of the bottom group has major implications for financial inclusion, as we discuss below.

Financial Inclusion and Well-Being



To understand how the private sector can contribute to well-being, we took a close look at the area of financial inclusion.
How can this be measured? The most basic financial service to which an individual can have access is an affordable financial account. Such accounts give people a safe way to deposit money, receive salary and other kinds of payments, and transfer funds to relatives. With that in mind, we used the World Bank's summary measure of financial inclusion: the percentage of individuals over the age of 15 who have a financial account, either a bank or a mobile-money account.3 Mobile-money accounts are typically provided by telecommunications companies.
By this measure, there has been major progress over the past several years. From 2011 through 2014, the number of people with access to a financial account rose more than 25%, from 2.5 billion (51% of the world's adult population) to 3.2 billion (62%).
Progress, however, has not been uniform. Over the past decade, significant gains in financial inclusion have been made in East African countries such as Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania. The growth in mobile accounts represents much of those gains. India and China have also made major strides. From 2011 to 2014, 185 million people in India and 188 million in China became first-time bank account holders.
In many wealthier countries, the challenge is one of depth—providing disadvantaged groups with financial services beyond very basic options and improving their usage rates. A key to achieving both goals is often the affordability of services. Among developed countries, the US made notable gains from 2011 to 2014, with the percentage of those over the age of 15 with an account jumping from 88% to 94%. But despite that progress, challenges remain; the unbanked rate in some states is more than twice the 6% national level.
As financial inclusion expands, what does this mean for well-being? Our SEDA analysis finds a clear and measurable connection between financial inclusion and well-being. This makes sense. Wealthier countries have more resources to invest in areas that support well-being. And given that financial inclusion tends to be higher in wealthier countries, it follows that countries with more financial inclusion would also have higher levels of well-being.
But even when we control for income, we see a clear and measurable relationship between financial inclusion and well-being. This means that among countries with the same income level, those with higher levels of financial inclusion are likely to have higher levels of well-being.  In fact, we find that financial inclusion accounts for 11% of the difference in well-being among countries—above and beyond what can be explained by differences in income levels.
Why would this be? The logical answer is that financial inclusion is linked to many aspects of well-being that have little to do with income. And our analysis found that three other SEDA dimensions have a particularly strong association with financial inclusion—civil society, governance, and infrastructure—associations that hold even when we control for income.
The link to infrastructure is particularly noteworthy and understandable. Reliable electricity, access to the internet, and well-developed mobile-phone networks—all of which are captured in the SEDA infrastructure dimension—have been key tools for expanding access to financial services in many emerging economies.
Notes:
3.
See the World Bank's Global Findex database on financial inclusion. The 2011 Findex numbers do not include mobile accounts. This has an impact on the percentage change in financial inclusion that is significant for only a few countries.

Lessons in Expanding Financial Inclusion



Any real momentum in financial inclusion requires a solid foundation that consists of two building blocks:
  • A sound and flexible regulatory structure that promotes innovation and competition while safeguarding consumers and the integrity of the financial system
  • A robust infrastructure, including reliable electricity and telecommunications networks and a well-functioning payment infrastructure  
Once that foundation is in place, the private sector can drive rapid innovation to expand financial inclusion. The pace of such innovation is reflected in an explosion of equity funding in the financial technology sector. In 2015, $22 billion was invested in privately held financial technology startups, up from just $4 billion in 2011.
We have examined four countries where private- and public-sector players have experimented with new approaches to expanding financial inclusion:
  • The mobile-phone-based money transfer service M-Pesa, launched by telecommunications company Safaricom in Kenya, took off thanks in part to a flexible regulatory environment and the way the service leveraged the many small retailers in the country.
  • In South Africa, strong financial regulations and the presence of large national retail chains have enabled new business models for increasing financial inclusion. Banks such as Commonwealth Bank have teamed up with large retailers, which serve as a massive distribution network for reaching previously unbanked citizens.
  • In India, the government has been a major catalyst. A push to give all citizens a national ID, along with new regulations that allow companies other than financial institutions to operate as “payment banks,” is expanding financial inclusion.
  • In Peru, the government has linked up with banks, telecommunications companies, and other private-sector players to promote the development of one mobile-payment system. The goal: to encourage companies to use that system to offer a slew of new, low-cost financial products and services to Peruvians who are currently excluded from the system.
These experiences highlight how various factors influence what works and what doesn't. And they underscore a critical lesson: approaches that are effective in one country are not always transferable to others.

The Private-Sector Opportunity



As we can see in our study of financial inclusion, private enterprises can create social benefits that strengthen well-being. And they can do this in the course of operating their core business—not as a side activity.
To avoid missing such opportunities, CEOs and other private-enterprise leaders—in particular, those with large footprints in emerging markets—can start by asking themselves two questions:    
  • Have we explored how our core business model can create social value?
  • How integrated are our corporate social responsibility and government relations efforts with our core business model? Are they a distraction from core operations—or can we use them to amplify and document the social value we create through core activities? 
The private sector has a major opportunity to contribute to the well-being of people around the world. And if companies do this effectively, they can boost shareholder value in the process.
Download the Full Report

divendres, 1 de juny de 2018

Una lección de (buena) economía La economia del bien comun-REFLEXIONES DEL NOBEL JEAN TIROLE

Una lección de (buena) economía

 La economia del bien comun-REFLEXIONES DEL NOBEL JEAN TIROLE 

Antonio Argandoña

El mercado necesita instituciones, leyes y normas que favorezcan la transparencia y la competencia

 

En nuestra sociedad dividida por la crisis económica, que rechaza el diálogo y busca soluciones simplistas para problemas complejos, es muy necesario que se alcen voces que propongan amplitud de miras, que nos ayuden a entender a los que piensan de otro modo, a salir de los supuestos de siempre y a no aceptar sin escrutinio las recetas populistas o partidistas. Jean Tirole, prestigioso economista francés, premio Nobel de Economía en 2014, es una de esas voces, que habla con sencillez y humildad en un libro reciente, 'La economía del bien común' (Barcelona, Taurus, 2017).
No voy a contar lo que dice, porque el libro es grueso (más de 550 páginas), aunque su lenguaje no es técnico. Sí que me referiré a algunos de sus mensajes, que, como he dicho, necesitamos escuchar hoy. Por ejemplo: seamos conscientes de las limitaciones de nuestro conocimiento. O, tomando las palabras de otro gran economista de hace un siglo, “en las ciencias sociales no hay verdades absolutas (excepto esta, claro)”.

Normas sociales y rutinas de comportamiento

Esto es muy útil para los economistas, porque, a estas alturas de nuestra ciencia, ya sabemos que los seres humanos no somos tan racionales como dicen nuestros modelos; que nos dejamos influir por las normas sociales y por las rutinas de comportamiento; que la información está repartida de modo muy desigual, y que frecuentemente creemos lo que queremos creer, no lo que se presenta ante nosotros. Y me atrevo a poner énfasis en estas limitaciones y tergiversaciones, porque las sufrimos todos, también los ciudadanos de a pie.
Entretodos

“Pero, si esto es así, ¡estamos perdidos!, dice el lector”. Nuestros 'expertos' no son de fiar en lo que nos dicen, y nosotros, los que les escuchamos, tampoco. Bueno, esto ya lo sabíamos desde hace siglos. Para eso hemos 'inventado' algunas soluciones. Una es el mercado, que Tirole defiende, pero con mucho realismo. El mercado necesita instituciones, leyes y normas que los protejan, que favorezcan la transparencia y la competencia (¡oh, qué importante es la competencia, subraya Tirole!).

No hay que esperar que los legisladores y reguladores lo vayan a hacer mejor que trabajadores, empresarios y consumidores

Eso da entrada al Estado. Pero sus representantes tampoco son de fiar, porque muchas veces persiguen intereses privados y sufren los mismos sesgos que los demás. No hay que esperar, pues, que los legisladores y reguladores lo vayan a hacer mejor que los trabajadores, empresarios y consumidores. Lo que hay que conseguir es que los políticos vigilen que los que toman decisiones no creen incentivos perversos, que producen resultados ineficientes e injustos. La gente, dice Tirole, suele reaccionar a los incentivos; si estos son malos, las decisiones serán incorrectas.
Por ejemplo, una empresa grande tratará de bloquear la entrada a nuevos competidores; un sindicato poderoso tratará de proteger a sus trabajadores, a costa, por ejemplo, de los que acaban de llegar al mercado laboral o de los que están en el desempleo, y un partido político tratará de proteger a los que le dan financiación, aunque a sea a costa del interés de todos los ciudadanos.

Supuestos, soluciones y argumentos

Tirole comenta un amplio listado de temas de actualidad, desde el cambio climático hasta el proteccionismo comercial, desde la gestión de las plataformas digitales hasta el alto desempleo que hay en Francia (¡qué diría del que tenemos en España!), desde las burbujas especulativas hasta la regulación de las instituciones financieras. El lector encontrará buenas discusiones de los supuestos, las posibles soluciones y, especialmente, de los argumentos que solemos dar los economistas para entender las consecuencias, casi siempre negativas a un plazo no tan largo, que tienen las “geniales” soluciones que se les ocurren a otros economistas poco cuidadosos, sobre todo si trabajan para políticos poco responsables.
El lector no tiene por qué estar de acuerdo con todas las propuestas de Tirole. Por ejemplo, me parece que su concepto de “bien común” es demasiado limitado, porque no quiere hurgar en las entrañas del proceso de toma de decisiones que analizamos los economistas. Su ética es la de tener en cuenta los intereses de todos, algo necesario, pero incompleto. Pero, a pesar de todo, me parece que vale la pena que hagamos todos, los economistas primero, los políticos después, y los ciudadanos al final, un ejercicio de reflexión y diálogo sobre nuestros problemas. La economía del bien común puede ser especialmente útil en nuestras universidades, en las que lo políticamente correcto o lo que es aceptable para ciertas opciones ideológicas puede suponer un freno a la hora de hacer buena economía. 

 

https://www.elperiodico.com/es/opinion/20180531/articulo-opinion-antonio-argandona-leccion-buena-economia-jean-tirole-6849935 

Jueves, 31/05/2018